Russia as many other countries deserves to be one the leading land in a scientific question. Еhere are about 3.5 thousand organizations engaged in research and development. About 70% of these organizations are owned by the state.
Currently, the framework conditions for science and technology and innovation (STI) policy have changed significantly in Russia: a system of technology forecasting has been established, which focuses on ensuring the future needs of the manufacturing sector of the national economy.
This system was supposed to be the main part of the state strategy planning system which is currently being formed. Over the last decade, dozens of science and technology forward-looking projects have been implemented, among which 3 cycles of long-term S&T Foresight stand out prominently.
The Foresight was developed by the request of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The development of the 3rd cycle of long-term Foresight includes both normative («market pull») and research («technology push») approaches. The project involved more than 2,000 experts and more than 200 organizations. Within the project, a network of six sectoral Foresight centers was created on the basis of leading universities.
The article describes the most important issues of future studies in Russia and presents the principles which formed the basis for the long-term science and technology (S&T) Foresight until 2030. The authors explore its position in the national technology Foresight system and the possibilities for the implementation of its results by the key stakeholders of the national innovation system and on the level of STI policy.
Eventually, Russian experience could be fairly interesting and useful for many other countries with similar socio-economic features and barriers. Today the Russian Federation sets an ambitious goal of moving into the “premier league” of more advanced economies with higher living standards for their population.
A twofold objective will have to be accomplished, which requires both breakthroughs in the development of global high-technology markets and modernization of the traditional sectors of the economy. Obviously, Russia’s future positions in the global value chains largely depend on whether the Russian economy would be able to successfully fit into the new wave of technological development, which, according to certain indicators, has already started.
This, in turn, requires a concentrated effort by all key players in the business, R&D, government, education, and other societal actors. The above determines the importance of identifying long-term development priorities on the basis of an integrated approach, taking into account both the external framework – global trends, challenges, and windows of opportunity – and the internal strengths and weaknesses.